Within series of articles on building a NAS, or home server , by request users I googled for you and did a little review of information sources.
This article contains links to most of the material I have used.As you accumulate and process the material, there may be new stuff here.
A bit of theory and general considerations
A very basic article from DELL "Introduction to storage systems" 2011, will help define the terminology.
For a general overview on storage, you might want to read the article "Working with Dunno – proactive reading technologies and hybrid storage" 2017.
In the little article "NAS for us : from expensive to simple to budget" 2015 has a few general words on the subject of your NAS.
To see if you need to build and what, take a look at this picture taken from a series of "classic" articles from 2013 on iXBT:
There is an even older article 2010, but competent enough.And the author already uses ZFS in his NAS.
In Art. "The Evolution of Home NAS.The result of six years" A review of some NAS models and something about the hardware.Might be of interest.
In a 2011 article "NAS with your own hands.Or? Finding a balanced solution" Using a curious Eolize enclosure and a Zotac board.The OS is FreeNAS.
In the following series of articles, the author takes a fairly comprehensive look at Synology NAS:
You can read about building a home server here :
In the next two articles, the author built the software part on Nas4free.
Recommended reading :
- "Black box for home : building a NAS with our own hands, part 1"
- "Black box for home : building a NAS with our own hands, part 2 – great NAS4Free"
In Art. "How I built a NAS at home" built a NAS in a pretty good Chenbro enclosure, using FreeNAS as the OS.The applications are installed in containers.
Mikhail Kulesh in the article "Home server on Intel Atom platform and Centos 7 OS" 2015 described building a server with GNOME that is accessible via VNC.I don’t quite approve of using graphics on a server, but it’s worth a read.
In Art. "Modest NAS for home" 2015, a certain "Windows Admin" built a NAS on OC Windows.You probably shouldn’t do that if NAS security matters to you.
It is also possible to read a small article "A storage device with your own hands"
Finally, another 2014 series of articles on homemade NAS worth reading :
- "Another NAS with my own hands, part 1: from what was"
- "Good memories (Flash memory for FreeNAS and other embedded OS downloads)"
- "Another NAS with my own hands : the adventures of XXX in the old tower"
- "Ghost of Chernobyl" (Remote control controller for PC-server with text console, no soldering iron and Arduino)
I will begin with a three-part article from Ridwan, 2017 :
- "Building an Open Media Vault NAS (Part 1 — Choosing Hardware)"
- "Building an Open Media Vault NAS (Part 2— Choosing and Installing OMV)"
- "Building an Open Media Vault NAS (Part 3— Configuring OMV)"
In Art. "Should I Build a NAS or Buy One? Americans choose the solution.
Nick Touran describes building something in between a NAS on ZFS and a server with X.org in "Building a NAS server/home server in 2017"
Here The NAS is based on a Supermicro board, WD Red drives, and a Silverstone DS30B enclosure like the one I have.
The author also got the problem of poor cooling. He solved it by dividing the air flows with a baffle, while I just drilled holes and changed the fans.
I recommend the article as the approach is quite clever: drive selection based on BackBlaze stats, post assembly check of components, Supermicro board, etc.
Ended up installing FreeNAS.
I didn’t like the article, the OS installed on USB flash, which is not very reliable (although acceptable for FreeNAS, OMV is worse with it).
This is not the only Brian Moses article. Here’s one, for example economy option. In general, the author has been building NAS year after year, has a lot of experience and the articles linked in his article I recommend reading.
On Reddit also brought up the topic of building and using NAS
Here has step-by-step instructions on how to build a powerful NAS server for a couple hundred dollars with links to all the components on eBay.
There are a couple on Youtube videos "NAS for home" In which the author gives some hardware recommendations and a small review of the enclosures.
A very good document on hardware is FreeNAS Hardware Recommendations Guide Here you can download the latest version in PDF. There is also a link to a discussion forum where some questions are covered in more detail.
Selection of components for home NAS is discussed in an article by Vitaly Shundrin from 2012 "Home NAS server building by yourself | Overview of NAS components" To some extent, the article may still be of interest.
For the selection of rims, I recommend the well-known BackBlaze statistics. which is updated every quarter and shows which disks are more reliable.
In Art. "Cheap ways to turn up the heat on your storage system with an SSD" 2017, it’s possible to read some curious thoughts about using SSDs.
Not much data on the hulls, had to do my own market research.
Actually an overview of the server boards in the format I require is given in my article on hardware I did not find separate articles with reviews, and there are not many candidates for review.
In constructing the architecture, I was guided by an article by a Cloud Architect. 2017. Quite literate, except for some excesses, which I removed in my version.
Definitely, this article is recommended reading.
It is also advisable to read "FreeNAS: A Worst Practices Guide"
There are a few more minor improvements in the article "Implementing some tasks for a self-assembled NAS" 2015.
File systems in general and ZFS
Actually, I use ZFS, but it’s worth reading the thread "Help choosing a file system" to see some of its shortcomings.
In the work "End-to-end Data Integrity for File Systems: A ZFS Case Study" shows where and how data corruption happens and how to protect against it, using ZFS as an example.
To understand how ZFS is structured and functions at a high level, there is an article "The architecture of ZFS" 2008, but still up to date.
At a lower level, this will make the article "How ZFS stores data" 2018.
Article "ZFS RAIDZ stripe width, or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love RAIDZ" gives an understanding of some of the features of RAIDZ.
There is an article on ZoL "ZFS on Linux: news from the fields 2017"
"FreeNAS Guide, 27.ZFS PrimerE contains a general description of ZFS and links to useful articles.
The articles below describe possible problems and overhead when using ZFS:
Some performance improvements are described in the articles :
ZFS Manual From Oracle.
SLOG and L2ARC
Definitely worth reading the article "The ZFS ZIL and SLOG Demystified" 2015 to understand what SLOG is even for and how it differs from ZIL.
There’s a good description on the forum in the thread "Some insights into SLOG/ZIL with ZFS on FreeNAS"
When setting up ZFS there are a lot of questions about choosing the size for service partitions and equipment for SLOG and L2ARC.
The following forum articles and topics will help answer them :
- "To SLOG or not to SLOG: How to best configure your ZFS Intent Log"
- "Calculation of SSD size for SLOG/ZIL device"
- "Formula for size of L2ARC needed"
- ZFS and SSD cache size (log (zil) and L2ARC)
- Why ZIL Size Matters or Doesn’t
- ZFS L2ARC sizing and memory requirements
There are useful articles :
- "Practical recommendations on backup policy" 2013.
- "12 backup commandments I almost paid my finger for" 2014.
And a Debian mailing list thread discussing backups, media degradation protection, and using ZFS: "Backup maintenance strategy, media degradation"
It’s worth looking at some examples of how backups are done in organizations :
- "Data Backup Standard Procedure"
- "Regulations on the backup system (financial organizations)"
- "Developing a company backup policy"
Links to articles about different software at random :
- "22 Outstanding Backup Utilities for Linux Systems in 2018"
- "Quick backup setup for Linux and beyond (UrBackup)" 2015.I decided to use UrBackup, I recommend reading.
- "About how I spent a week in the Bareos" 2015.
- "Bareos: tapes, Hyper-V and more" 2017.
- "BTSync in the service of the admin"
- "BTSync as a backup tool"
- "BackupPC Information" BackupPC is not a bad bug free system, although it is a bit old.
- lsyncd(1) – Linux man page
- "Box Backup: hot backups" 2007.
- "Syncthing: free software for synchronization and backup"
Alittle research "Options regarding ‘CrashPlan for Home’ closure" 2017
There are brief articles by Ruslan Korotayev from 2017 :
And a series of articles on creating a cloud :
- "The Story of the Home Cloud.Part 1.Setting up a Debian environment for everyday use"
- "The Story of the Home Cloud. Part 2. Creating a server – configuring LAMP in Debian"
- "The Story of the Home Cloud. Part 3. Creating a personal cloud – installing and configuring Nextcloud"
- "The Story of the Home Cloud. Part 4. Update 2018 – Debian 9 and Nextcloud13"
The following can be read on Seafile :
Not much material on Nextcloud, mostly functionality reviews :
Not all of the subsystems are mentioned here, because some of them are not ready yet.
This article will be supplemented.
Suggest your materials for addition.
Thanks sevmax For an interesting link to a step-by-step tutorial on how to build a fairly powerful NAS with great savings.