Home Setting up Linux What to do when a small business is seriously thinking about migrating from Windows to Linux

What to do when a small business is seriously thinking about migrating from Windows to Linux

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Preface. I hope my story will help beginners or indecisive users to quickly and without delay migrate to Linux from Windows without uninstalling Windows.
Beginning. By the will of fate I am system administrator Encyclopedia of a small business (less than 10 machines) in the service industry. My bosses had been dreaming about moving to Linux for years, but their first experiments (Fedora was chosen) could not be called completely successful. I didn’t like the interface, the programs and the hardware. Later on of course we understood our mistake: we just chose an unfortunate interface and installed a minimal set of drivers without going into details.
However, although they were saddened, they were not discouraged and after another conversation with a good Python programmer (maximum respect to him), they puzzled me, not familiar with Linux, to try to install Linux Mint on all workstations with an interface
Mate (linuxmint-18.1-mate-64bit to be precise) in parallel with Windows. This version seemed to us the most similar to the usual Win interface, the OS version was the latest at the time.
The main purpose of all this was to make the software free (for corporate WIN10 I had to pay something in the region of 10-20k, I do not remember exactly). The company valued its reputation and did not want to use unlicensed software. It was very important to maintain the appearance of the system, making the transition to Linux as comfortable as possible (for this reason there are many personal settings in the review, about which I will write a little later). The second most important reason for the rejection of Windows was the extremely unfriendly policy of the US towards Russia – the management simply fears that even in the case of purchase would still have to sooner or later move to Linux (I know, good part of hubs immediately calls the ambulance "another patient diagnosed with Wendekapets").
Well, the goal is set. I have begun to implement it. Looking ahead, I will tell why I decided to create an entire article on Habra about it: the topic is relevant to most small businesses in the country, but the mass resources poorly covered, and the it-resources a lot of material, but to find a sensible literacy for the average user – an employee of a small business in the service sector – has proved difficult.
I originally just created the instructions for myself so I wouldn’t forget all the settings in the future.
So I can’t help but share the fruit of my many days of labor. At last if you have a friend who is not an IT guy and you want to know how to change from Win to Linux you can just send him this article.
1. Write the downloaded linux image to a flash drive using the rufus program.
2. Partition the existing hard drive into two parts to allocate a partition for Linux.
Windows/PCP/Administration/Computer Management/Disk Management
3. Reboot, enable the bios, enable booting from the flash (there may be problems with booting, then you need to select uefi /legacy mode – google, in very rare cases you need to change the bios firmware – I had one of my computers like this)
4. When installing click on "install third party software" maybe the program will give you "install next to Windows": you can do this if you don’t want to look too hard, or erase the disk and install linux at all (if you don’t feel sorry for linux), but you should always click on "other option". Next, look in the list for the partition you specifically left for Linux, it will be easy to find by its size and the fact that it is empty. Delete it, and create 2 new partitions – swap partition (put for example 4gb, usually put as much as RAM, although much too bad – there is a controversial issue). The rest of the space you allocate for ext4 (it is the file system, similar to ntfs in the wind) and a mount point in "/". Important. Do not accidentally delete the efi partition. It is not quick to restore it. A program that can do all this under Linux is gparted.
5. A small nuance that affects security. During the debugging of the system, you can leave the checkbox "log in automatically" when installing, if only reliable people are behind the computer, and you want to be able to reboot and configure it remotely through TeamViewer. Otherwise, it’s unlikely that a regular user will be able to force TeamViewer to log in at startup, similar to the way it does with Windows. If you need a permanent solution for remote reboot and control, you have to configure ssh.
6. Probably not on the subject of installing linux, but generally a good tip for any reinstaller: swap your hard drive for an ssd, speeds up booting the system and many programs considerably.
7. After rebooting, the grub menu will come up with a list of operating systems. Use grub-customizer to edit the list and the order of the operating systems, set :

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:danielrichter2007/grub-customizersudo apt-get updatesudo apt-get install grub-customizer

8. I recommend to download in advance all installation packages .deb (analog of .msi in Windows) of the programs you are interested in. It is possible that some programs will not work correctly after the update (I had this problem with firefox for example). Even if this happens and it is not possible to fix it with usual methods, do not despair, download other versions. For example I downloaded the friendly firefox nightly on which everything worked like on firefox before the update.
9. Install wine, in order to be able to run programs designed for Windows. After installing, click on any of the installation files
Windows – then it’s just like Windows. If you want to open files with this program by default, just copy the command to start this file to the shortcut properties
and then right click on the file : open with another application.
10. Installation of updates and basic programs, list of commands and my personal settings :
and. Options/power management, disable, suspend mode (if computer should be online all the time), change to normal layout tray, taskbar width 35
b. Set TeamViewer /start at login and password for settings.
in. One-time system update

sudo apt update sudo apt upgrade sudo apt autoremove sudo apt autoclean sudo apt clean

G. Parameters/appearance theme mint-x aqua, there also change the window view to
clearlooksre, change the screen saver, adjust the usual shortcuts
d. Installing fonts that are popular in the wine ttf-mscorefonts-installer
through the program manager
e. Auxiliary technology options/mouse/disable touchpad – who is bothered by accidental touching of the touchpad on a laptop.
g. Add a calculator to the panel in the start menu
h. Preferences/Desktop Setup remove unnecessary and add shopping cart
and. Keyboard options/combinations: minimize windows, and possibly customize other commands you are used to.
k. Installing the flash plugin analog

sudo apt-get install pepperflashplugin-nonfree sudodpkg-reconfigure pepperflashplugin-nonfree

L. Remove the file browser and terminal near start menu (average users do not need terminal every day).
M. Installation of viber, telegram, other work programs (Startup at login is configured with the right button)
n. Connect printers and scanners – setting up printers
about Installing the java plugin

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:webupd8team/java sudoapt-get update sudo apt-get install oracle-java8-installer

Failure to accidentally delete a window list applet is a common mistake when you can’t see the list of open windows. It is solved by adding the applet to the panel with the right button.
Afterword. For me, the main problem with switching all the computers on this network to Linux was some problems with printers. However, in general, they are all a thing of the past, the universal print driver that is the default on linux is fine. If some hardware isn’t on the list, I just choose a more or less similar one by name and everything works fine. Also one of the laptops didn’t see wi-fi – found a solution to the problem on the forum with the command

sudo apt-get install linux-image-$(uname -r|sed ‘s, [^-]*-[^-]*-, , ’)linux-headers-$(uname -r|sed ‘s, [^-]*-[^-]*-, , ’) broadcom-sta-dkmssudo modprobe -r b44 b43 b43legacy ssb brcmsmac bcmasudo modprobe wl

For the rest, of course, there was a period of adaptation of the employees, someone needed the old programs (the wine application was always successful in running them under the new system).
It has been about a year since the startup, flight is normal, now no one even willingly wants to go back to vindu (asked them for the sake of interest), no complaints, a couple of times they deleted only the list of open windows, which in general did not stop the work.

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